Virtual Design Analysis Group is a division of NVentum, LLC.

This unique collaborative endeavor; to utilize the latest reality capture technology to document the artifacts, buildings and campus of History San Jose, provides opportunities for private sector, non-profits and institutions of higher education to work together to solve some of today's most pressing engineering issues. The protocol for retrofitting as-built historic facilities and the use of new technologies to preserve our most prized historic treasures are vital to the continued success and expanded influence of our museums.
This blog will document the challenges and successes of this ambitious, one of a kind project.

Friday, June 29, 2012

2D Floor Plans in a 3D World

HP Pavilion
No matter how new or "modern" the venue, no matter the location or reputation of the facility, they all have one thing in common that remains unchanged and practically unquestioned by the public; the "Dreaded" 2D floor plan. Unquestioned even though it is something most people would agree is the most primitive of the acceptable practices that still exist in the operation of public assembly venues.
How many times have you planned to attend an event at a world class venue and decided to check their webpage to preview their seating chart only to find an indecipherable mess? It makes no difference what venue you choose; convention centers, theaters, arenas, auditoriums, churches, hotels, they all share the same problem; terrible 2D floor plans and seating charts.

HP Pavilion
Seating Chart
It may sound silly to complain about 2D diagrams and charts. After all, 2D floor plans have been the standard for communicating/documenting the physical and spatial information of buildings for centuries. Though this a fact, these types of seating charts have always been a source of frustration for me as both a facility manager and as a facility user. It's a given that choosing seats for an event or concert is anything but a science however with the cost of tickets, parking, food and "swag" at these events, the last thing you want is some unforeseen drama when you finally get to your seats. Arriving at your seats to find your view is partially obstructed or that the crowds from the concessions stands are backed-up to your seating area can completely ruin your night.
This is especially true for members of the disabled community. The adoption of ADA legislation of the early 1990's has provided for the inclusion of safe, accessible seating arrangements. However, many venues still lack a pre-designated seating area therefore arrangements, number of reserved seats and location may changed for each event and/or performance.

Shoreline Amphitheater

This has been a problem since people started using seating charts to plan and market events and performances. Years ago, I produced these seating charts on drafting boards; eventually, I graduated to AutoCAD and AutoCAD LT to enhance my craft. In other words, I'm not trying to "bash" the 2D environment that helped me put food on the family table.What I am saying is today's technology allows us to provide much more information to our clients, customers and guest, while allowing feedback and analyzing data that can help reduce operating cost for the building owner.

Shoreline Amphitheater is one of the great concert venues in the Western United States. As the picture shows, the venue is clean, the setting is spectacular and the seating arrangement provides clear unobstructed views. However, when clients/customers search the web for "Shoreline Amphitheater Seating Charts", what turns up doesn't quite tell the same story.
Shoreline Amphitheater Seating Chart

This problem certainly isn't tied to the HP Pavilion and Shoreline Amphitheater. As I said before, this is -and has been- the standard methodology for disseminating spatial information about public assembly venues since recorded time.

Today's Technology Upgrades For Public Assembly Venues
There is time for a change in the industry standards.
What if guest could visit the webpage for the Shoreline Amphitheater and enter a virtual model of the facility? The virtual model would allow the visitor to enter a 3D environment, walk to the seat of his/her choice, sit down and view the venue from the perspective of the guest in that seat? How could/would this affect the marketing and/or sales for a venue?  What if these online, virtual public facilities mimicked what was happening in the real world? Is this a gadget or a useful tool? 

For Attendees, Exhibitors,Guest and Show Managers:
49er's Santa Clara Stadium
Seating Chart
Could you imagine attending the SEMA Convention in Las Vegas via a 3D model of the facility? Anyone who couldn't afford to travel to the convention could still see and visit some of their favorite exhibitors and booths. What if exhibitors supplement the "live" attendance with the attendees from a virtual convention? Instead of 200,000 attendees, exhibitors could draw over 2,000,000 attendees; potential business/sales contacts. From a show management/exhibitor's perspective, the show can continue in the virtual world as long as you'd like; more exposure, more leads, more sales. Marketing and sales specialist have another tools for reaching the masses.     

I started thinking about this idea in 2000, after being introduced to laser scanning technology by Ken Hanna. At that time, there was still quite a few technological hurdles to be overcome but I was confident that within 5 years things would be far enough along to move forward with the idea. A couple of years ago, I came across a patent that was written by someone and dated in 2003. The patent request discusses the concept of online conventions, exhibits, sales, etc. As you may imagine, I was a bit disappointed to see that someone had already started the patent process however I recognize the opportunity at hand..

The possibilities are endless. It all starts with the creation and development of the 3D As-Built Model.

For Building Operators/Owners:
Why is this technology so important for public facility operators? 
There is a critical need for more information about how our buildings operate and how we can make them operate more efficiently. There is technology on the market that can and will revolutionize the way we collect, store and share information about public facilities. Owners can recognize savings through energy reduction and strategic maintenance plans; BIM technology is the key.

What if the virtual model of the Las Vegas Convention Center I described was actually a BIM? What if the building owner/operators could access, adjust and monitor the buildings environmental and security systems via the 3D model? What if access to the BIM could be made via a Smart Phone or other mobile device? What if the facility was able to monitor its' performance, make adjustments to maximize efficiency, anticipate maintenance problems, communicate with third party vendors to insure timely response to repair concerns?

The possibilities are endless. It all starts with the creation and development of the 3D As-Built Model.

This is not SciFi, this is today's BIM technology. For many people, BIM technology is SciFi. A major goal of the "Capturing History" project(s) is to help demonstrate the benefits of this technology. The development of the 3D model is just the beginning of what can be achieved with this technology; it is the foundation of NVentum's standard for BIM.

SJ Civic Auditorium Floor Plan
Even The Historic Civic Auditorium
Can't Elude the "notorious" 2D Floor Plan

Check out this scan of Wembley Stadium by Digital Surveys, U.K. This 3D model represents the future of online floor plans and seating charts for convention centers, theaters, arenas, stadiums, hotels, museums and all public assembly venues. Check out the attached video and think about the possibilities....

"Using a Scanstation2 3d laser scanner, Digital setup in the middle of the stadium and carried out a 360 degree scan over 3 hours."...from Digital Surveys webpage

Wednesday, June 27, 2012

3D Laser Scanning - Architectural

This is a beautiful example of a street scan in Gothenburg, Sweden using FARO Focus 3D laser Scanner and PointTools Software. This point cloud contains over 400 Million points.

Over the years, we have watched the progress of FARO through the expansion of their product line and applications. FARO's recent collaboration with Blach Construction's Mission Carmel documentation project led to NVentum's first conversation with FARO regarding our work with the San Jose History Park. As those of you who've read some of my previous blog post know, developing work flow is a significant component of the Capturing History Project. Finding the right equipment, with compatible, cost efficient software is critical to developing a process that makes economic sense for owners and operators to consider retrofitting and/or upgrading their buildings.
We're really looking forward to expanding our discussions with FARO and developing the processes that will enable museums to digitally document their capital facilities.
Stay tuned for updates about the equipment selected to complete our project....

Sunday, June 24, 2012

Laser Scanning's Impact On Surveying

How Laser Scanning Has Revolutionized Surveying
Laser scanning provides more detailed and more accurate data than information obtained through manual measurements, incomplete or obsolete as-built drawings and/or maps.

The accuracy of models prepared using laser scanning technology translates directly into reduced project cost due to the reduction of construction reworks and delays. 3D models also facilitate cost reduction through the accurate development of prefabricated construction components and materials.

Prevents schedule delays by reducing time required to collect data from as-built structures 

Safer data collection- information can be obtained from the ground without the need for harnesses and other safety equipment. Data can be collected in areas that are too dangerous or unstable for people to safely work

Laser Scan of Plaza at SJ History Park
Nventum, LLC.
Eliminates costly return visits to project sites to verify measurements

Unobtrusive data collection technology reduces field construction time and facility down time.

Data captured by the laser scan can be translated in accurate 2D or 3D AutoCAD drawings to be used for 3D visual walk-throughs and 2D or 3D design. The data could ultimately be rendered into a complete 3D Building Information Model. 

How Laser Scanning Is Revolutionizing Museums and Public Venues
The 3D Model is the ideal database for storing and accessing information about the entire life-cycle of a facility. 

History San Jose
Building Information Modeling contains building geometry, spatial relationships, geographic information, quantities and properties of building components and materials.

Data contained in the BIM allows for real-time energy audits, acoustical simulations, maintenance and monitoring of air contaminants/pollutants and development and implementation of various RFI technologies and solutions.

The marriage of BIM and GIS technology will provide unique marketing/sales opportunities resulting in new revenue streams for facility owner/operators.

Historic Pasetta House
Laser Scan by Ken Hanna, NVentum LLC.
The concept of Virtual Museums is no longer confined to a collection of high definition photographs.

3D model is an excellent marketing tool; allowing a client, exhibitor, guest or visitor to see the facility without actually being there.

BIM is a useful tool in the reduction, monitoring and maintenance of a facility's carbon footprint.

BIM software applications allow building operators to monitor and adjust the building's electrical, environmental, mechanical and security systems remotely via SMART phones, tablets or laptops.

Read about America's Smithsonian's exploration of 3D laser scanning technology at

Wednesday, June 20, 2012

Silicon Valley's BIM Leaders

Though Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been around for some time now, many contractors have yet to fully adopt the technology.  When BIM was still in its infancy, the high cost of equipment and training, plus the lack of demand were understandable reasons for contractors to be hesitant to buy into the technology. 
Today, the cost of equipment has come down significantly, there are new training programs available for professionals and the applications for the technology continue to expand.
The Silicon Valley is home to some of the finest construction firms in the world. These firms continue to raise the bar when it comes to BIM Projects, VD&C and sustainable construction. Here are a few of the Bay Areas top BIM/VD&C contractors:
"An early leader in BIM, Blach Construction employs a wide variety of modeling tools including ArchiCAD, Revit, NavisWorks, 3Ds Max Design and Google Sketch-up. Among other benefits, BIM enables the coordination of building systems designs and installation, analysis of building efficiency and life-cycle cost and serves as a powerful constructability and estimating tool"...from Blach Construction's webpage

"We build technology- Hathaway and Dinwiddie is a leader in the use of Building Information Modeling. We use BIM, a computer based, 3D modeling and visualization process in every phase of our project delivery life-cycle. In pre-construction, Hathaway and Dinwiddie is an innovator in advancing BIM capabilities that vastly improve the project estimating and planning processes. We add value in the coordination process through our use of 3D detailing and coordination in a virtual environment, addressing clashes and mitigating conflicts before breaking ground. As we integrate BIM into the construction site, we see increases in productivity and advancement in prefabrication that have profound impacts on cost, schedule and sustainability.
Through continued development of advance construction techniques, Hathaway and Dinwiddie remains California's builder of choice and an industry leader in BIM integration technology...from the Hathaway and Dinwiddie webpage

Adding Value Through Technology- Swinerton gains a tremendous amount of knowledge about the project by first building it virtually. Not only are unclear design intent issues and design errors discovered before construction but RFI and Submittal communications become more clear with the design team through the use of Virtual Design & Construction (VD&C) models.
Communications among the various building trades become more collaborative, risk is reduce for everyone and cost become more transparent. Schedules become more attainable as "what must be done, when" becomes clear to the whole construction team.
...Since that start of our VD&C initiative in 2007, Swinerton has applied VD&C technologies on 162 projects totaling 49.9 million square feet and a combined construction value of over $11 Billion."...from the Swinerton Incorporated webpage

"Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the process of constructing a 3D digital model in conjunction with or before embarking on a real-world construction project. BIM means building twice; first on the computer and then in the field. BIM has many new applications in the construction industry but its primary uses are as a means of visualization and a tool for trade coordination."...from Turner Construction webpage

"Walters and Wolf is well versed in Building Information Modeling (BIM). As an early Revit adopter (2002( and a registered member of the Autodesk Developer network, we have been producing 3D fabrication tickets and CNC programming for the last 10 years. The idea of a model-to-shop-floor solution is not possible with most current software so Walters and Wolf built proprietary programs to convert digital information from shop drawings to full 3D extrusions.
Walters and Wolf has the software and personnel to participate in the Building Information Models that are used to not only detect potential design conflicts but also build project schedules and product installation sequencing."...from the Walters and Wolf webpage.

Visit our online journal focusing on the historic and iconic architecture of Silicon Valley:

Saturday, June 16, 2012

Academic Leadership and the Evolution of Construction

"Digitally preserving cultural heritage sites through collecting, archiving and providing open access to data created by laser scanning, digital modeling and other state-of-the-art technologies."...CyArk Mission Statement

Printing Office at San Jose History Park
Photo Courtesy of History San Jose
Historic Documentation
Low Resolution Laser Scan of Print Office at SJ History Park
Laser Scan by Ken Hanna, NVentum, LLC
BIM Development
Laser Scan of Printing Office w/Photo Overlay
Laser Scan w/Texture Map by Ken Hanna, NVentum, LLC.
Facility Documentation
Laser Scan by Ken Hanna, NVentum, LLC.
(Low Resolution)

As-Built Construction Documentation
Low Resolution Scan of Printing Office
Ken Hanna, NVentum, LLC.
Academic Leaders in Modern Construction
"The Center for Advance Spatial Technologies (CAST) is dedicated to research and applications in geospatial analysis and modeling, enterprise spatial databases, remote sensing, digital photogrammetry and geospatial interoperability and has been selected as a Center of Excellence by Intergraph Corporation, Oracle Corporation, Trimble Navigation LTD., Sun Microsystems, Skyline Software, Definiens Imaging Software, PCI Geomatics, Safe Software, IONIC Software and eSpatial Systems."...Mission Statement for Center for Advance Spatial Technologies at University of Arkansas.

"The CIFE mission is to be the world's premier academic research center for Virtual Design and Construction of Architecture-Engineering-Construction (AEC) industry support exceptionally reliable engineering and management practices to plan, design, construct and operate sustainable facilities."...Mission statement for the Center for Integrated Facility Engineering- CIFE at Stanford University

"a digital representation of physical and functional charateristics. A BIM is a shared knowledge resources for information about a facility forming a reliable basis for decisions during its life-cycle; defined as existing from earliest conception to demolition."...Penn State University's Computer Integrated Construction Resource Program
Notable University BIM/VDC Programs
Texas A&M- BIM at UTexas
 Massachusetts Institute of Technology-  Feniosky Pena-Mora Research Group
Penn State University- Computer Integrated Construction Research Program

Notable BIM Certificate Programs
University of San Diego Extension Program

Evergreen Valley College BIM/VDC Program

CAD Masters, Inc.- AutoDesk Authorized Training Centers

Autodesk University Online

New York University School of Continuing and Professional Studies

The Construction Institute- (University of Hartford, CT.)
Turner University- Turner Construction

Sunday, June 10, 2012

Laser Scanning and the GSA

Photo Courtesy of History San Jose
...From the United States General Services Administration, Office of the Chief Architect's webpage
GSA's Office of the Chief Architect (OCA) is currently encouraging, documenting, and evaluating 3D laser scanning technologies on a project-by-project need basis. 3D laser scanning has become a prominent vehicle for acquiring building spatial data in three dimensions with high fidelity and low processing time. The rapid collection of 3D information serves several purposes across GSA business lines, including:

  • Historic Documentation
  • Facility Documentation
  • BIM Development
  • Construction as-Built Development    

Using funding awarded by the Public Buildings Services Office of the Chief Information Officer's Venture Capital program, OCA is partnering with other agencies and organizations, such as NIBS, NIST, ASTM, FIATECH, and SPAR Point to develop best practices and standards for 3D laser scanning.   OCA is currently conducting pilot projects in Brooklyn, New York; Atlanta, Georgia; and Miami, Florida and will be including laser scanning best practices in Series 03 of the BIM Guide Series.
Laser Scan of Pasetta House
by Ken Hanna, NVentum, LLC.

GSA Contact:
Matta, CharlesDirector, Federal Bldgs & Modernizations
1800 F Street NW Suite 3300
Washington DC 20405-0001Phone:            (202) 219-2355      

Tuesday, June 5, 2012

The Evolution of the Construction Industry

 “Construction is a team sport, and BIM is dramatically reshaping the way project teams work together to increase productivity and improve outcomes for all. This is driving the most transformative evolution the construction industry has ever experienced.”…McGraw-Hill Construction SmartMarket Report, Design and Construction Intelligence, National Institute of Building Sciences

If you look at the construction and operation of facilities you can't help but realize that the techniques used today are virtually the same techniques that have been in use for centuries. Blueprints, floor plans and schematics have been the technology of choice for building homes, public facilities, schools and churches since the recording of history. Whether you are designing a home, selecting a hotel room, renting office space or building an addition to your current facility, the process begins with a basic 2D floor plan drawn on a piece of paper. Of course, innovations like CAD have made life easier but the basic format for designing or illustrating the dimensions, layout and design of a residential or public facility have remained unchanged.
While this process has been in use for centuries all over the world, it is not without it's problems. The construction field is synonymous with cost overruns, last minute changes in design and financial hurdles. Much of the cost are due to fragmentation during the construction phase. If you look at the construction process from start to finish, the gaps in the flow of information are obvious. Even so, there has been little effort to change the inefficiency has become embedded in the construction process. A typical construction project can have dozens of blueprints; each with different information specifically designed for different person/department. This fragmentation translates into cost that are eventually passed on to building owners. With these types of issues, why is the industry so slow to change?
"FIATECH" is an international community of passionate stakeholders working together to lead global development and adoption of innovative practices and technologies to realize the highest business value throughout the life cycle of capital assets...from the FIATECH website,
SJ City Hall
When our city leaders decided to build the new City Hall, the original cost estimates were approximately $214 million. Soon after, the cost estimate went to over $340 million; the final cost was approximately $382 million for the 55,000 square foot facility. The cost overruns can be attributed to several sources however a major factor in the increase in cost is labor; labor required to re-design, re-engineer, remove, re-deliver or re-order  parts or equipment that had to be changed at the construction site due to insufficient information. The electrician's blueprints don't have the plumber's schematic, notes or information. The plumber's blueprints don't have the HVAC plans. The carpenter's blueprints don't include the electrician's plans and so there are breaks in communication; the fragmentation within the process continues.
 Here's a typical example of what sometimes happens at construction sites; the HVAC contractor arrives at the construction site of a new office building to install a section of conduit on the third floor. Once on site, the HVAC contractor realizes there is an electrical tray in the path where the conduit was supposed to be installed. The HVAC contractor doesn't have this tray on his/her blueprints, so works stops while the contractor calls the office. After an hour of discussion(s), the contractor takes the pre-fab conduit back to the warehouse and the contractor re-designs the conduit to compensate for the electrical tray that was not included on their plans. Meanwhile, the HVAC installer, through no fault of their own, didn't accomplish the task scheduled for that day. The process of re-designing the HVAC system could set them back several days. Of course, the building owner is absorbing the cost for the entire process. This is just part of the business. There is nothing "shady" or unethical about this. No one is out to purposely run up the cost for owners and certainly no one wants to alienate a client. These things happen when you have several sub-contractors who each have a singular focus.
"The global capital projects industry, despite years of effort, is not achieving a level of interoperability exchanging models and data, or in process systems and tools that captures near the value opportunity to the industry stakeholders. Fiatech’s Vision Paper presents an overview of current industry activities for advancing interoperability, and puts forward building blocks with calls for action to accelerate advancement of interoperability to achieve step change value gains in the industry."...Comments on Interoperability From FIATECH website.
 However, it's not only the contractor and sub-contractors that contribute to the information gap. Owners and architects will sometimes make changes during project that require subcontractors re-design or re-work a given assignment. This creates more delays in work flow, which creates higher cost, which are passed on to the building owner.
 So, what can be done to correct these types of costly delays? Could a shared platform, accessible on a database or server, that provides all parties with real-time information, time-lines and updates be the answer? This is the role of the 3D model in the design and construction of buildings. 
 While I've written about the merits of this technology, the need for workforce development in the field(s) of BIM and VDC, the merging of BIM and GIS technology and so on, I am not the only person shouting about the importance of this technology nor am I the leading authority on these topics. This is not science fiction or a planned concept for the near future.This is today's technology. Some of the leading organizations and scholars and institutions of higher learning are deeply involved in 3D, BIM Technology and Virtual Design Construction.
Stanford University
Center For Integrated Facility Engineering- Stanford, CA.
The CIFE mission is to be the world's premier academic research center for Virtual Design and Construction of Architecture - Engineering - Construction (AEC) industry projects ... to support exceptionally reliable engineering and management practices to plan, design, construct and operate sustainable facilities...from the Stanford University CIFE website
 The question is, if this technology is such a major step in the evolution of construction, facility maintenance and operations, why aren't more industry leaders jumping on the bandwagon for 3D Modeling and BIM? The answer to that question isn't as easy as one might think. 
 The first thing that comes to mind today is the poor economic climate. This is always the quick and easy answer but in this case it doesn't apply. Apple Computer has recently began designing a $500 million campus. Apple  purchased an additional 98 acres in Cupertino for $300 million that used to be the old HP campus. A local hospital recently paid over $100 million dollars to create a 3D Model of their facility expansion. There is a new stadium under construction in Santa Clara. There are plans being made for an $800 million dollar stadium on the SF waterfront for the Warriors. There are many more large projects underway in and around Silicon Valley. Money is a problem for some but certainly not all and not among the big general contractors and architectural firms.
Green Building of the future
 Given the various projects underway in this region, why aren't more projects incorporating this cutting edge technology in the construction, maintenance and operations plan? I can tell you from our experience at NVentum, the challenges with introducing this particular technology has been a difficult but very interesting process. The real question we keep asking ourselves is, who will drive the need for BIM and 3D technology?

"The buildingSMART alliance™ is a unique organization helping to make the North American real property industry more efficient by leading the creation of tools and standards that allow projects to be built electronically before they are built physically using Building Information Modeling."..from the Building Smart Alliance websitea council of the National institute of Building Sciences.
 Many of the architects we've met and worked with have an interest in 3D modeling and BIM technology. Most use VDC to create models for their presentations. However, the creating a 3D model of an as-built facility or of a facility under construction is something done in the field. Though there is tremendous benefit to have a 3D model of a facility, this is not something architects do. This makes it unlikely that architects would be the driving force behind this new technology.

From my perspective, labor unions were the obvious answer to this question; who better to drive this new technology? Unions are responsible for keeping their members informed and educated in the latest skills and techniques in their area of expertise. Training their members would assist in insuring future employment for the coming economic wave. This is a no-brainer, right? Not so fast, we spent years trying to get local unions to look into this technology and create training curriculum and opportunities for members. In most cases, senior membership struggled with the concept of moving away from techniques they've been practicing their entire careers. One long-time union member said it best, "I'm retiring in three years. Why would I want to relearn how to do my job now?" This wasn't the sentiment of all unions, however. Others were supportive of the concept but reluctant to spend money on expensive equipment and training cost when union dues are down due to the economy. It is unlikely that a push for new technology in the construction field(s) will come from labor unions.
Centuries Old Technique
 Many of the big general contractors are fully aware of the technology and the various applications. Several have BIM coordinators/managers on staff or under contract for specific projects. However, general contractors are in the business of providing bids for jobs. Anything is not deemed critical yet adds to the cost of a bid is a liability. While most Bay Area cities have green building ordinances, none require 3D/BIM technology Most green building codes refer to LEED standards and none address as-built building unless the facility(s) being re-modeled. It is unlikely that general contractors will become the driving force behind this push for technology.
According to the U.S. Green Building Council, CO2 emissions from commercial buildings are predicted to grow at about 1.8 percent annually through 2030, faster than any other sector of the economy. If 50% of new commercial buildings are built to use 50% less energy, more than 6 million metric tons of C)2 would be saved annually for the life of the facility, 50 to 100 years.
 Though the cost of construction can be very high, it is the cost of maintaining and operating a facility through it's life cycle that is most costly. The cost of power, water, maintenance and upkeep is where the majority of the owner's investment lays. Having the ability to monitor and adjust energy consumption, reduce maintenance cost through prevention and scheduling,  to reduce the carbon footprint of the facility, increase employee health and productivity by monitoring and correcting air quality and contaminant, increase overall productivity by reducing response and repair times by contractors; these are the real benefits to 3D/BIM technology. The real key to the widespread implementation of these innovative technologies is the education of building owners. It is the building owners who will set the demand for this new technology. The building owners who will begin the revolution in workforce development and set in motion the evolution of the construction industry. When building owners start to require 3D Models and BIM technology in the bid process, that's when you will see architects, contractors and unions rushing to recruit people with BIM experience and  looking for training opportunities for employees and members. It all starts with the building owners, the people who bare the cost and therefore have the most at stake. 
"Proper Building Information Management (BIM) technology can have a major impact on the health and productivity of our community. Existing SMART technologies and procedures can improve Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in a manner that significantly increases employee productivity and health According to an August 2000 report from the Environmental Energy Technologies Division of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the estimated potential savings and productivity gains in the U.S. alone are $6 Billion to $14 Billion from reduced respiratory disease, $2 to $4 billion from reduced allergies and $20 to $160 Billion from direct improvement in worker performance related to health."...

Today's "Blueprints"
Laser Scan of HSJ Trolley Barn
by Ken Hanna, NVentum, LLC.